Long Shot (LS) - a shot which shows all or most of a fairly large subject. This shot allows the audience to see the subject well and see the whole of the subject.
- Extreme Long Shot (ELS) - The camera is at the furthest possible distance from the subject. This creates a feeling of loneliness and the scene becomes to feel quite eerie.
- Medium Long Shot (MLS) - When the subject is an actor or actress the lower frame line cuts off their feet at the ankle. Documentaries favour this shot as it keep with the social circumstance instead of the audience's eye being drawn to the individual
Establishing Shot - This is the opening or sequence which is frequently a ELS as it helps set the scene of the the piece using the environment.
Medium Shot (MS) - This is where the actor or actress is an equal distance from the edges of the frame, For example the lower frame passes though the waist therefore there is room for the actor to use hang gestures.
Close-up (CU) - A picture which shows a small part of the scene such as a characters face so that it fills the entire frame . This is used to make the audience focus upon the expression of the character, normally used to portray extreme emotions
- Medium Close-Up (MCU) - Head to Shoulders
- Big Close-up (BCU) - Forehead to Chin
Shot Angles are usually used to show the relationship of power to the character, they also add interest to the piece so that the audience remain involved by using a wide range of shots , For example if you have a character with a large amount of power they should be filmed from a low angle shot , to make them look larger and look as if they are towering over the rest of the subjects. Below I have listed a range of shit angles:
High Angle Shot - The camera is above a person , looking down on them
Low Angle Shot - The camera is below a person , looking up at them
Flat Angle Shot - The camera is looking straight at the person
Birds-eye Shot - The camera is directly above the action
Steady Cam - The camera is carried by the cameraman , allowing the camera to move freely this portrays a feeling of experiencing the film as if you were the subject and was used though out 'The Blair Witch Project'.
Dolly Cam - The camera moves across the scene smoothly upon larger tracks this is how most movies are shot
Pan - The Camera remains in the same spot , but fixed upon the Central point and rotates smoothly around the point to film the scene.
Tilt - The camera stays in one place and moves vertically from high to low Angle or low to high
Track - The camera moves along following the action within the scene. This movement is also very smooth.
Zoom - The camera zooms in or out to make things seem larger or smaller. This is used to force the audience to focus upon a point.